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Prof. Dr. Safiye YılmazProf. Dr.Safiye YılmazGöz Hastalıkları Uzmanı

Corneal Diseases

The cornea consists of five separate layers. The uppermost layer is a tissue that can regenerate itself within 24-48 hours. The cornea is supersensitive against extrinsic factors cause of contains many nerve fibers in its structure.

Corneal Diseases

What is the corneal diseases?

What is the Cornea?

The cornea is set in the forefront on the eye that is a specializing, transparent, and curved tissue for focus the light and protect to eye against extrinsic factors. The cornea is like watch glass fairly. When looked at from the opposite side, it cannot be realized the because that is transparent. When looked from the outside, the iris layer of the eye (the layer that gives color to the eye) and the orifice in the middle of the eye (pupil) are realized.

Cornea and lens provide focus to light coming from the external environment to retina that has vision cells. Refractivity power of the cornea is not variable in any case refractivity power of the lens is variable and it provide focus to objects where certain distances fall on the retina. The cornea must be transparent for transmitting the image clearly into the eye.

Therefore, it does not contain blood vessels in its structure.

Oxygenation and nutrition of the cornea are provided by tear secretion and air at external part, and optic fluidat inner part. The cornea is supersensitive against extrinsic factors cause of contains many nerve fibers in its structure. Nerve fibers protects health of the cornea with  blink reflex and supportive properties. The cornea may be seem quite delicate a structure, but it is almost as hard as a nail because the cornea’s structure is similar to that of a nail. However, the cornea is supersensitive about touch sensitive.

 

The cornea consists of five separate layers. The uppermost layer is a tissue that can regenerate itself within 24-48 hours.  The cornea is the first tissue that affected from trauma thereby it is the tissue in the front of the eye and the eye is an organ that open to outward.

 

Many eye injuries or infections can affect the upper layer of the cornea and the cornea can return to its original due to this layer has the ability to renew itself. However, the lower layers are affected by the injury or infection if the injury or any corneal infection has affected the lower layers, there will be a recovery but with a stain in front of the eye, and this stain has damaged the transparency of the cornea, thus the image becomes blurred. Because except for the top layer, the other 4 layers do not have the ability to regenerate themselves and therefore the diseases heal by leaving a trace.

Corneal Diseases Symptoms

Symptoms of corneal diseases include:

  • Pain
  • Watering of eyes
  • Rash,
  • Light sensitivity
  • Significant blurred vision

Corneal Ectasia

  • Keratoconus
  • Keratoglobus
  • Pellucid marginal degeneration.

Corneal Infections

  • Bacterial, viral, fungal infections
  • Allergic keratoconjunctivitis

Diagnosis of Corneal Diseases

It is known as eye transplantation among the people, but the whole eye transplantation that is out of question. because the eye is an organ in the form of an extent of the brain and the eye is connected to the brain by the optic nerve. In order for the whole eye to be transplanted, the optic nerve of the eye must be cut off and replaced with another eye. When the optic nerve is cut, the sight is lost irreversibly and it is impossible to regain the sight in that eye.

Corneal transplantation is a transfer surgery that is applied to patients who have transparency is impaired or the ultra-showing deviation of curvature of the cornea tissue.

Cornea Treatments

Medical Treatment: Drug treatment is generally applied in cases of infection or dry eye, and necessary drug treatments are arranged for the patient.

Surgical Treatment: This treatment is done for changing the integrity, transparency, or optical properties of the cornea.

Among the surgical treatments that applied to the cornea;

Excimer laser applied to change the refractive position of the eye.

Crosslink treatment (cross-linking treatment) applied in cases where the obliquity of the eye is impaired and the intra-corneal ligaments are weakened.

Phototherapeutic keratectomy surgery is the treatment for superficial spots in front of the eye that is applied with the excimer laser.

Corneal transplantation: It is a transplant surgery in which the transparent corneal tissue taken from the dead is replaced with the damaged corneal tissue, which is applied in cases where the transparency of the corneal layer is impaired.

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